Roads are built on mountains by carefully surveying the region, then methodically cutting or blasting into the mountain’s side. From there, roads are before being finished and ready for commuters to use.In this article, we’ll look at the process of roads being built on mountains and all of the careful steps that go into planning a mountain road. Additionally, we’ll answer some commonly asked questions about building roads on mountains.
What is the Process for Building Roads on Mountains?
The process for building roads on mountains involves surveying, drilling, blasting, and the paving of roadways. It’s a time-consuming and often dangerous task and depends heavily on the planning portion of the process.Roads are generally built from the valley or plain up towards a mountain range, not vice versa. Because of this, roads need to be either:
- Blasted out of rock cliffs and slopes using explosives or
- Carved along natural contours in the ground, including ledges and gorges.
Roads in Mountainous Areas Must First Be SurveyedRoads are to determine the best path for them to be built along. This route takes into account many factors such as weather patterns, the slope of mountain faces that need roads on or through them, etc. It’s also important to remember that roads are built up mountains, not down them. This is because roads cut into the side of a mountain become susceptible to rockfalls and landslides, which can be hazardous for vehicles traveling on roads as well as construction workers building it. There are nearly ten different types of surveys, but for roads, especially those along mountainsides, engineering surveys are used. focus on surveys conducted during the planning and execution of engineering projects, such as:
- Drainage systems, and so on.
- Roads are first surveyed on paper or by hand.
- It entails taking measurements, performing computations, drafting plans, and determining specific locations.
- The surveyor may be called upon to measure heights and distances, establish buildings, bridges, and roads, calculate areas and volumes, and draw plans at a certain scale.
- Laser equipment
- GPS technology
- High-precision cameras with video recording capability
- Aerial photography systems that produce both still images and digital videos for site documentation purposes, etc.
Road Are Designed and Mapped by Engineers After SurveysOnce a survey is completed, design begins with engineers who map out specific locations where roads will go, including cuts and fills. A road grade is determined during design that helps estimate what kind of cut or fill soil materials will be needed while still meeting requirements set forth by environmental agencies regarding groundwater. Once the road is , materials such as asphalt or concrete are brought in to create a smooth surface that vehicles can drive across all year without fear of damage from sleet, snow, rain, etc. Its important roads don’t just look nice, but they must stand up against Mother Nature too!
Drilling and Blasting Contractors Are Used To Cut MountainsidesAfter engineers have surveyed and mapped roads, the mountains must be drilled and blasted to create a level surface for the road to be paved. This method requires roads to be cut into the mountainside, which is done by drilling holes deep into the mountain. These holes are then filled with explosive material and detonated in order to open up space for roads or railways that were not previously possible without affecting groundwater sources. This process is called “blasting,” and it’s used extensively on roads built on mountainsides and railways. The material that’s blasted off the mountainside needs to be collected, sorted out by size then reused or recycled. Much of this material is used to fill in the valleys and roads built on flatlands. The creates small particles of crushed rock called “rock dust” when it’s blasted out of a hole drilled in rocks, causing them to disintegrate almost immediately due to air pressure pushing against them. This fine powdery substance must be cleaned up quickly, so it doesn’t affect surrounding areas by bringing down mudslides or contaminating nearby bodies of water. The best way to clean this debris is by using heavy machinery equipped with vacuums attached right on top, so all the dust gets sucked up and disposed of. This is a massive job and requires extensive preparation, including:
- Clearing out trees
- Removing stumps
- Relocating rocks that might get in the way of roads
How Are Roads Paved and Finished in Mountainous Areas?The next step is laying down several layers:
- First comes gravel
- Then compacted dirt
- Followed by asphalt.
- Mounting: The shape of the road is determined by the foundation. Excavation equipment and bulldozers are used to move and place dirt and earth over the road during this phase.
- Grading: After the road has been built, it must be . The surface layer is smoothed and leveled using a combination of hand labor and machinery known as graders.
- Aggregating: After the soil has been leveled, an aggregate foundation of soil, concrete, and limestone is laid to ensure stability. Curbs, gutters, and drains are also installed during .
- Metal braces
- Screws, and
- Specialized equipment like excavators capable of digging up large rocks without breaking them into smaller pieces too small to handle.
Asphalt Waterproofing Is the Final Step in PavingAsphalt provides weatherproofing and enhances road strength even more by adding another layer that prevents water from seeping through cracks in between layers of gravel or dirt. Asphalt roads provide excellent traction for cars during dry conditions and periods of wetness. This is because they’re paved with stones or gravel chips (known as aggregate) mixed together with asphalt. Asphalt is laid in two layers:
- A very thin layer called a “tack coat” which is spread over the road’s surface and allowed to dry.
- Then another, thicker layer of asphalt known as the “binder course” is laid over the top.
Why Do Roads Wind Around Mountains?
Roads occasionally wind around mountains because roads are built in a way to protect them from water damage. Drilling and blasting mountainsides can also be difficult, and roads that wind around mountains help to avoid this.Highway engineers build roads based on the physical features of the surrounding landscape, such as hills, mountains, rivers, or swamps, where they must follow specific guidelines called “Standard Highway Geometric Design Procedures” (or SHGD). These procedures ensure safe design standards are met while protecting road users from adverse conditions related to natural topography and climate variations. When deciding how best to cross mountainous terrain, the most important factor is safety: crossing at maximum speed with no risk of car accidents caused by dangerous weather conditions like fog or snow. So roads are designed to avoid the highest points of mountains, which means roads wind around them rather than going straight up and down like a zigzag.
How Long Does It Take To Build Roads on Mountains?
It can take months or even years to build roads on mountains, with lots of planning and preparation beforehand in order for them to be safe when they’re finished.This will vary depending on how steep the roads are, whether there’s a particular geological feature that affects road placement (such as rivers), or if there are any buildings that might get in the way of roads being built. With all these factors combined, it certainly isn’t an easy process! Transportation engineers must first find out where roads need to go. They will look at topographical maps of the land, which show elevations (the higher a point is above sea level, the greater its elevation). Then transportation experts study geological features such as rivers and ravines that might affect road placement before doing any construction work. That way, buildings don’t get in the way of roads or bridges when they’re being built — it just makes everything take longer because engineers have more moving parts involved in their designs for roads! Once engineers have designed roads using topographical maps featuring elevations and geological features, construction professionals work to plan roads and construct them. Engineers use a lot of different equipment for roads on mountains, such as:
- Dump trucks
- Cranes, and
- Other heavy machinery.
ConclusionBuilding roads on mountains isn’t an easy task. Roads are:
- Meticulously planned
- Surveyed and mapped before being formed and paved